親権について

親権・監護権とは?親権者になるためのポイントや決め方などの基礎知識

The parental authority and the child custodies? The basics such as the point and the way of deciding to become a person in parental authority

未成年の子がいる夫婦が離婚をする場合に最も重要なのは、どちらが親権を持つかを決めることでしょう。親権者が決まっていなければ、離婚届が受理されず、そもそも離婚をすることができません。親権者を決めるに当たっては、どちらが親権を持った方がその子にとってより良いかという観点から考えなければなりません。「この子と一緒にいたいから親権を持ちたい」という気持ちもわかりますが、そのような自分本位な考えではいけません。

どちらが親権を持った方がその子によってより良いかを考えるに当たっては、そもそも親権とは何なのかということを正しく理解しておく必要があります。ここでは親権とは何か、親権者になるポイントや決め方について説明します。

It is deciding which has parental authority that will be the most important when husband and wife where there is a child of the minority divorces.
If a person in parental authority isn’t decided, the divorce notification isn’t accepted and can not after all divorce.
When deciding a person in parental authority, it is necessary to think from the viewpoint the one that which has parental authority more is better for the child.
I understand the feelings ” to want to have parental authority because I am painful with this child “, too, but in the such egotism な idea, it isn’t possible not to bank up them.
When thinking of the one that which has parental authority more is better with the child, the fact what the parental authority is must be after all understood right beforehand.
I describe what the parental authority is here about the point and the way of deciding which becomes a person in parental authority.

関連記事

The related article

Why is that the father becomes a person in parental authority disadvantageous? The point for the father to win parental authority
The reason and the procedure method why the change of the person in parental authority and deprivation of him and the stop of him are admitted
I thought that it wanted to renounce parental authority and the moving of the parental authority and the child custodies and resigning parental authority

親権とは

The parental authority

親権は、子どもと一緒に暮らすことができる権利と考えられがちですが、単にそれだけが親権者の役目ではありません。親権とは、未成年の子どもと一緒に暮らし、教育やしつけなどの身の回りの世話をすること、子どもの財産を管理し、契約などの法的な手続きの代理人になることを指します。親権者は子どもの成長にとって重要な役割を果たさなければなりません。

親権は親の権利と書きますが、親権者は権利を持つだけでなく義務の側面が強いことも覚えておくべきでしょう。義務についても、責任を持って果たすことのできる親が親権者にふさわしいと言え、調停や裁判で親権者を決めるときにも、この点は判断の対象になります。

Apt to think that the parental authority is the right which can live with the child but only its not merely being the duty of the person in parental authority
The parental authority means becoming the agent of the legal procedure of the contract and so on, managing the fortune of the child of doing caring for the personal appearance such as the education and the breeding, living with the child of the minority.
The person in parental authority must play an important role for the growth of the child.
I represent parental authority as the right of the parents but I will should learn the thing that the side of the duty is strong, too, beforehand in addition to person in parental authority’s having a right.
As for the duty, too, it is possible to say that the parents where accomplishing, accounting is made are suitable for the person in parental authority and dealing for the judgement at this point when arranging and deciding a person in parental authority by the trial, too

監護権と財産管理権

The child custodies and the fortune management right

親権についてもう少し詳しく知っておきましょう。親権は、子どもと一緒に暮らし世話をする、いわゆる「保護者」となる「監護権」(身上監護権)と、子どもの財産を管理し、法律上の代理人となる「財産管理権」の2つに分けることができます。

親権にはこの2つのどちらも含まれていますが、監護権だけを切り出すことも可能です。海外出張で子どもの世話ができなくなってしまうなど、特別な事情がある場合には、代わりに子どもの世話をする「監護者」を定めることができます。監護者には父母だけでなく、祖父母などの第三者を指定することも可能です。

しかし、夫婦間で親権問題を解決するための妥協案として、親権者と監護者を分けるという選択肢は避けた方が良いでしょう。監護者だけでは子どもの代理ができる範囲が限られてしまい、早急な手続きが必要な際に親権者に連絡がつかない、といったトラブルも起こり得ます。監護者を選ぶときも必ず子どものことを第一に考えましょう。

Let’s know beforehand about the parental authority, being detailed a little more.
Saying ” the child custodies ” ( the circumstance child custodies ) which becomes so-called ” protector ” which cares, living with the child, I manage the fortune of the child and the parental authority can be divided among two of ” the fortune management right ” which becomes a legal agent.

This two either is contained in the parental authority but it is possible to begin only to do a child custodies, too.

” The 監護 person ” that the special situation that it hasn’t been possible not to do caring for the child in the overseas business trip, and so on, cares for the child instead in some cases can be specified.

The outsiders such as the grandparents in addition to the parent can be specified to the 監護 person, too.
However, I will had better avoid the alternative to separate 監護 person from the person in parental authority as the compromise to solve a parental authority problem among husband and wives.
The trouble such as that the range which can do the substitute of the child has been limited only at the 監護 person and contact’s not being under the person in parental authority when the immediate procedure is necessary, too, can happen.
Let’s think of the child certainly to the primacy when choosing 監護 person, too.

親権者となるには – 親権の判断基準

To become a person in parental authority, I am the gauge of the – parental authority.

夫婦どちらが親権者にふさわしいかは、以下のような視点で総合的に判断されます。

  • 親としての義務を果たせそうか
  • どれだけ愛情を注いでくれそうか
  • 子どもの生活環境が悪化しないか
  • 子どもはどちらと暮らしたいのか

子どもの年齢や性別以外にも、次のようなポイントが判断基準となります。親権を取りたいと思ったら、ポイントを知るだけでなく、望ましいとされる環境をしっかりと整えてあげてください。

In the suitableness of husband and wife which for the person in parental authority, I am judged, being general in following viewpoint.

Is it possible to achieve a duty as the parents and do I go along?
How much do I concentrate love and do I go along?
Isn’t the life environment of the child aggravated?
Which and does the child want to live?
The following point becomes a gauge to the thing except the age and the gender of the child, too.
If thinking that it wants to take parental authority, in addition to to know a point, arrange fast the environment which is supposed to be desirable.

これまでの監護実績

Former 監護 results

これまで親として子どもの世話や教育、財産管理などの「親権者としての義務」をどの程度果たしていたかが重要なポイントとなります。多くの家庭では、子どもが幼いうちは母親が衣食住といった全般的な世話をするため、母親が親権者としてふさわしいとされる傾向にあります。出産前であれば母親が親権者となります。また、夫婦が別居中の場合では、実際に子どもと暮らして世話をしている方が親権を持つ傾向にあります。

I am achieving ” the duty as the person in parental authority ” of the caring for the child and the education of him, the administration and so on so far in which degree as the parents and I become only important point.
In a lot of homes, while the child is young, because the mother does general caring such as the food, clothing and shelter, the mother tends to be supposed to be suitable as the person in parental authority.
The mother becomes a person in parental authority if being before birth.
Also, in the case while husband and wife is separating and is, living tends to have parental authority actually with the child.

現状維持の考え

I think of the maintenance of the status quo.

環境の変化は子どもに大きな影響を与えます。必ずしも新しい環境に子どもが順応できるとは限らないため、「子どもの環境を現状維持する」という判断基準があります。例えば、引っ越しや転校の有無が見られ、子どもの環境変化が相対的に少ない方の親が親権を持つ傾向にあります。また、子どもが複数人いる場合はそれぞれの子に対して親権を決める必要がありますが、兄弟と暮らす環境を維持するために、一方の親が全員の親権を持つことが理想です。

The change of the environment has a big influence on the child.
Because the child can always not always adapt to the new environment, there is a gauge ” to maintain the environment of the child in the present situation “.
For example, a move and the existence or non-existence of the transfer are seen and more few parents tend to have parental authority, that the environmental-variation of the child is relative.
Also, when there is more than one child, the parental authority must each child is decided on but that one of the parents have the parental authority of all the members to maintain the environment which lives with the brother is an ideal.

子どもの意思

The intention of the child

「どちらの親と一緒に暮らしたいか」という子ども本人の意志も判断基準になります。子どもが15歳以上の場合は、十分に判断能力が備わっていると考えられ、裁判所が子どもの意見を聞くことが法律で定められており、多くはその子どもの意思が尊重されます。子どもが15歳以上でなくとも、判断能力が十分に備わっていると裁判所が判断すれば子どもの意思が尊重されるケースもあります。

The will of the child very person who is called ” with which parents do I want to live “, too, becomes a gauge.
I think that are sufficiently when the child is 15 years of age or older equipped with the judgement ability, that the court hears the opinion of the child is specified by the law and the intention of the child is often respected.
There is a case that the intention of the child is respected, too, if the court judges when sufficiently equipped with the judgement ability even if the child is not 15 years of age or older.

親の生活態度と適性

The attitude of the life of the parents and the aptitude

親として「子どもを育てていく適性」があるかどうかも、判断の対象となります。

  • 親がアルコール依存や薬物依存などの心配がないか
  • どのような教育方針なのか
  • 緊急時の場合に代替監護者がいるか

このような視点も考慮されます。

親の経済力に関しては、養育費で補うことができるため、判断基準としては重視されにくい傾向にあります。

また、不貞行為や配偶者へのDVに関しても、即座に「親としての義務を果たしていなかった」と結論づけることはできないため、親権者を決める際にはそれほど考慮されません。しかし、不貞行為の場面を子どもが目撃し、それが子どもへ悪影響を及ぼした場合や、子どもに対して暴力を振るっていた場合などは、親権を決める際に大きな影響を与えます。

That the parents include ” the aptitude of raising a child ” is dealt with for the judgement.
Is there not anxiety about the alcohol-dependence-syndrome and the drug dependence and so on in the parents?
What educational policy am I?
Is there a substitution 監護 person in case of emergency?
Such a viewpoint, too, is considered.
As for the economic power of the parents, that it is possible to make up with the child support, as the gauge, I am in the tendency which it is difficult is thought much of.
Also, as for DV to the infidelity act and the husband, too, when deciding a person in parental authority that it isn’t possible to conclude ” that it wasn’t achieving a duty as the parents ” immediately, I am not so considered.
However, I have a big influence when deciding parental authority when the child witnesses the scene of the infidelity act and it affects a child and the violence is splendid to the child, and so on.

親権者の決め方

The way of deciding that it does a person in parental authority

「子どもにとって最良な親を選ぶ」という前提のもと、まずは親権者をどちらにするかを双方で話し合います。もし話合いで折合いがつかない場合は、離婚調停の中で親権者の取り決めを行います。この場合は家庭裁判所の調停委員が双方の間に入り、中立的な立場で夫婦双方の主張を聞き、どちらが親権者にふさわしいかを判断していきます。

しかし、調停でも双方の合意が得られそうにない場合には審判手続きとなり、裁判所の判断によってどちらが親権者としてふさわしいかが決まることとなります。それでもどちらか、もしくは双方が裁判所の判断に納得がいかない場合は、離婚訴訟を提起して争うことになります。離婚訴訟となると1年以上の期間がかかることもあるため、子どもにも悪影響を及ぼしてしまうかもしれません。出来る限り、話合いまたは離婚調停の取り決めの中で親権者を決めることが望ましいでしょう。

I make the origin of the presupposition ” to choose the best parents for the child “, first a person in parental authority which and I discuss at 双方.
When the compromise isn’t on by the discussion, I do the agreement of the person in parental authority in the divorce arrangement.
In this case, the mediation committee member at the family court asks among both the claims of husband and wife both in the entering, the neutral situation and judges which is more suitable for the person in parental authority.
However, the consensuses of both are reached by the arrangement, in case of not being, I become a judge procedure and they are decided by which is more suitable as the person in parental authority with the judgement in the court.
However, when either or both doesn’t understand a judgement in the court, I pose the divorce-case and I compete for it.
Because the equal to or more than 1 year period sometimes takes when becoming a divorce-case, I may have affected a child, too.
It will be desirable to decide a person in parental authority in the discussion or the agreement of the divorce arrangement as much as possible.

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